Verbos irregulares (passado) em inglês

Diferente dos verbos regulares, os verbos irregulares em inglês não seguem um padrão quando conjugados no passado.

Neste caso, os verbos são escritos de modo diferente, como se fossem outra palavras, e não apresentam a terminação –ed. Com isso, as formas do passado e do particípio passado podem variar.

Embora os verbos irregulares se constituam numa pequena minoria em relação a todos os verbos existentes na língua, a frequência com que ocorrem é muito alta, o que lhes dá uma importância significativa. São todos de origem anglo-saxônica e se referem predominantemente a ações comuns. Os verbos irregulares do inglês são aqueles verbos que não seguem a regra geral de formação do Passado e do Particípio Passado. A formação do Past e do Past Participle, de acordo com a regra geral, que se aplica a todos os demais verbos, se dá através do sufixo -ed. Portanto, todo verbo que não seguir este padrão, será classificado de irregular. É interessante notar que a irregularidade dos verbos em inglês manifesta-se apenas nas formas do Past e do Past Participle, e não na conjugação dos mesmos, como em português. Os únicos verbos do inglês que têm também uma conjugação irregular são o verbo to be e os verbos auxiliares modais (can, may, might, shall, should, must, etc.).

Diferença entre verbo regular e irregular

Confira aos exemplos abaixo:

Exemplo de verbo regular: to add

  • John added a new item.
  • We have added that.

Note que a grafia das flexões é formada com o infinitivo add + partícula -ed

Exemplo de verbo irregular: to read

  • John read the book.
  • We have read read the manual till today.

Observe que, na última frase, a flexão tem uma grafia própria, ou seja, sua formação não é originada pela junção do infinitivo read + partícula -ed.

Ainda que não sejam a grande maioria, os irregular verbs são muito utilizados na língua inglesa. Portanto, confira abaixo uma tabela de verbos irregulares em inglês.

Lista de verbos irregulares em inglês

Agora, os verbos irregulares não seguem regras, e está aí parte da dificuldade para quem está aprendendo inglês. O ideal é praticar sempre e colocar o inglês no seu dia a dia para se acostumar com os diferentes verbos e conjugações. Porém, se for necessário, existe uma tabela dos verbos irregulares no passado para consulta. Hoje, vamos destacar o uso e selecionar alguns dos principais para você ter em mente.

Na tabela mencionada, você encontra três colunas. A primeira é do verbo no infinitivo, a segunda é da conjugação dele no simple past, e a terceira, que costuma causar mais confusão, é a do past participle.

InfinitivoTempo passadoParticípio passado
abideabided / abode *abided / abidden *
alightalighted / alitalighted / alit
arisearosearisen
awakeawoke / awaked *awoken / awaked *
be / am / is /arewas/werebeen
bearbore / bare *borne / born
beatbeatbeaten / beat
becomebecamebecome
beginbeganbegun
beholdbeheldbeheld / beholden *
bendbent / bended *bent / bended *
betbet / bettedbet / betted
bidbade / bidbid
bindboundbound / bounden *
bitebitbitten / bit *
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbroke / brake *broken / broke *
breedbredbred
bringbrought / brang * / brung *brought / brung */ broughten *
broadcastbroadcastbroadcast
buildbuiltbuilt
burnburned / burntburned / burnt
burstburst / brast *burst / bursten *
buyboughtbought / boughten *
castcastcast
catchcaught / catched *caught / catched *
clingclung / clang *clung
clotheclothed / cladclothed / clad
comecamecome / comen *
costcost / costedcost / costed
creepcrept / creeped / crope *crept / creeped / cropen *
cutcutcut
dealdealtdealt
digdug / digged *dug / digged *
divedived / dovedived / dove
do / doesdiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamed / dreamt / drempt *dreamed / dreamt / drempt *
drinkdrank / drunk * / drinked *drank / drunk * / drinked * / drunken *
drivedrove / drave *driven
dwelldwelled / dweltdwelled / dwelt
eatateeaten
fallfell / felled *fallen / felled *
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought / foughten *
findfound / fand *found / founden *
fitfitted / fitfitted / fit
fleefledfled
flingflung / flang *flung
flyflewflown
forbidforbade / forbad / forbadeforbidden
forecastforecastforecast
foreseeforesawforeseen
foretellforetold / foretelled *foretold / foretelled *
forgetforgot / forgat *forgotten / forgot*
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
getgot / gat *got / gotten
givegavegiven
gowentgone
grindground / grindedground / grinded / grounden *
growgrew / growed *grew / growed *
hanghung / hangedhung / hanged
have / hashadhad
hearheardheard
hidehidhidden / hid *
hithithit
holdheldheld / holden *
hurthurthurt
choosechosechosen
inlayinlaid / inlayed *inlaid / inlayed *
inputinputinput / inputten
keepkeptkept
kneelkneeled / kneltkneeled / knelt
knitknitted / knitknitted / knit
knowknewknown / knowen *
laylaid /layed *laid /layed *
leadledled
leanleaned / leantleaned / leant
leapleaped / leapt / lept */ lope *leaped / leapt / lopen *
learnlearned / learntlearned / learnt
leaveleftleft / laft *
lendlentlent
letlet / leet *let / letten *
lielaylain / lien *
lightlighted / litlighted / lit
loselostlost
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
misleadmisledmisled
mistakemistook / mistaked *mistaken
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstood / misunderstanden **
overdrawoverdrewoverdrawn
overhearoverheardoverheard
overtakeovertook / overtaked *overtaken
paypaid / payed *paid / payed *
proveprovedproved / proven
putputput / putten *
quitquit / quittedquit / quitted
readreadread / readen *
reprovereprovedreproved / reproven
ridridded / ridridded / rid
riderode / rid *ridden / rid *
ringrang / rung *rung
riseroserisen
runranrun
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset / setten *
sewsewedsewn / sewed / sewen *
shakeshook / shaked *shaken / shaked */ shook *
shearsheared / shoresheared / shorn
shedshedshed
shineshone / shinedshone / shined
shoeshoed / shodshodden / shoed / shod
shootshotshot / shotten *
showshowed / shew *shown / showed / shewed *
shrinkshrank / shrunkshrunk / shrunken
shutshutshut
singsang / sung *sung / sungen *
sinksank / sunksunk / sunken
sitsat / sate *sat / sitten *
slayslew / slayedslain / slayed
sleepsleptslept
slideslidslid / slidden *
slingslung / slang *slung
slinkslunk / slinked / slankslunk / slinked / slank
slitslitslit / slitten
smellsmelled / smeltsmelled / smelt
sneaksneaked / snucksneaked / snuck / snucked *
sowsowed / sew *sowed / sown
speakspoke / spake *spoken / spoke *
speedspeedded / speedspeedded / speed
spellspelled / speltspelled / spelt
spendspentspent
spillspilled / spiltspilled / spilt
spinspun / span *spun
spitspit / spatspit / spat
splitsplitsplit
spoilspoiled / spoiltspoiled / spoilt
spreadspread / spreaded *spread / spreaded *
springsprang / sprungsprung / sprang
standstoodstood / standen *
stealstolestolen
stickstuck / sticked *stuck / sticked *
stingstung / stang *stung
stinkstank / stunk *stunk
stridestrode / strided *stridden / strode / strid / stridded *
strikestruckstruck / stricken
stripstripped / striptstripped / stript
strivestrove / strivedstriven / strived
swearsworesworn
sweatsweated / sweatsweated / sweat
sweepswept / sweeped *swept / sweeped *
swellswelled / swole * / swelt *swelled / swollen
swimswam / swum *swum
swingswung / swangswung / swungen *
taketook / taked *taken
teachtaught / teached *taught / teached *
teartoretorn
telltold / talled *told / talled *
thinkthought / thinked *thought / thinked *
thrivethrived / throve / thrave *thrived / throve
throwthrew / throwed *threw / throwed *
thrustthrust / thrusted *thrust / thrusted *
treadtrod / tread * / treaded * / trodden *trodden / trod / tread * / treaded *
undergounderwentundergone
understandunderstoodunderstood / understanden *
undertakeundertook / undertaked *undertaken
upsetupsetupset / upsetten *
vexvexed / vext *vexed / vext *
wakewoke / waked *woken / waked *
wearwore / wearedworn / weared
weavewovewoven
wedwedded / wedwedded / wed
weepwept / weepedwept / weeped
winwonwon
windwoundwound
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
withholdwithheldwithheld / withholden *
withstandwithstoodwithstood / withstanden *
wringwrang / wrung / wringed *wrung / wringed *
writewrote / writ *written / writ *
befallbefell / befelled *befallen / befelled *
begetbegot / begat *begot / begotten
beseechbeseeched / besought *beseeched / besought *
besetbesetbeset / besetten *
bidbadebid
blessblessed / blest *blessed / blest *
bustbusted / bust *busted / bust *
cancouldxxx
clapclapped / clapt *clapped / clapt *
cleavecleaved / cleft / clove / clave *cleaved / cleft / clove
crowcrowed / crewcrowed / crown *
heaveheaved / hove *heaved / hove * / hoven *
hewhewed / hew *hewed / hewn
mowmowedmowed / mown
overcomeovercameovercome / overcomen *
overthrowoverthrew / overthrowed *overthrew / overthrowed *
partakepartook / partaked *partaken
pleadpleaded / pledpleaded / pled
rebuildrebuiltrebuilt
retellretold / retelled *retold / retelled *
shredshredded / shredshredded / shred
strewstrewedstrewed / strewn
subletsublet / subleet *sublet / subletten *
upholdupheldupheld / upholden *
bequeathbequeathed / bequethed / bequoth / bequod bequeathed / bequethed / bequoth / bequod
betakebetook / betaked *betaken
chidechided / chid / chode * chided / chid / chidden
forbearforbore / forbare * forborne / forborn *
girdgirded / girt *girded / girt *
interweaveinterwoveinterwoven
misspendmisspentmisspent
offsetoffset offset / offsetten *
outwearoutweared / outwore outweared / outworn
overdo / overdoesoverdidoverdone
overeatoverate / overet *overeaten
overseeoversawoverseen
oversleepoversleptoverslept
overwriteoverwrote / overwrit overwritten / overwrit
rendrentrent
repayrepaid / repayed * repaid / repayed *
rewriterewrote / rewrit rewritten / rewrit
underpayunderpaid / underpayed * underpaid / underpayed *
underwriteunderwrote / underwrit underwrote / underwrit
undo / undoesundidundone
unwindunwoundunwound
writhewrithed / wrothe * writhed / writhen *
overbearoverbore / overbare * overborne / overborn
browbeatbrowbeat browbeaten / browbeat
unbendunbent / unbended * unbent / unbended *
outbidoutbidoutbid
overbidoverbidoverbid
underbidunderbidunderbid
unbindunbound unbound / unbounden *
interbreedinterbredinterbred
overbuildoverbuiltoverbuilt
recastrecastrecast
unclotheunclad / unclothed unclad / unclothed
crosscutcrosscutcrosscut
undercutundercutundercut
misdealmisdealtmisdealt
misdo / misdoesmisdidmisdone
outdo / outdoesoutdidoutdone
redo / redoesredidredone
redrawredrewredrawn
test-drivetest-drove / test-drave *test-driven
fretfretted / fratefretted / fretten
bottle-feedbottle-fedbottle-fed
force-feedforce-feedforce-feed
hand-feedhand-feedhand-feed
overfeedoverfeedoverfeed
self-feedself-feedself-feed
spoon-feedspoon-feedspoon-feed
underfeedunderfeedunderfeed
overflyoverflewoverflown
test-flytest-flewtest-flown
quick-freezequick-frozequick-frozen
unfreezeunfrozeunfrozen
undergirdundergirded / undergirt * undergirded / undergirt *
glideglided / glid / glode * glided / glid / glidden *
foregoforewentforegone
forgoforwentforgone
outgrowoutgrew / outgrowed * outgrew / outgrowed *
overgrowovergrew / overgrowed * overgrew / overgrowed *
mishearmisheardmisheard
upheaveupheaved / uphove *upheaved / uphove * / uphoven *
helphelped / holp *helped / holpen *
hoisthoisted/hoisthoisted/hoist
hand-knithand-knit / hand-knitted hand-knit / hand-knitted
foreknowforeknew foreknown / foreknowen *
ladeladedladen / laded
laughlaughed / laught * / laugh'd * / low * laughed / laught */ laugh'd * / laughen *
belaybelaid / belayed * belaid / belayed *
mislaymislaid / mislayed * mislaid / mislayed *
re-layre-laid / re-layed * re-laid / re-layed *
waylaywaylaid / waylayed * waylaid / waylayed *
overleapoverleaped / overleapt / overlept * / overlope * overleaped / overleapt / overlopen *
relearnrelearned / relearnt relearned / relearnt
unlearnunlearned / unlearnt unlearned / unlearnt
overlieoverlay overlain / overlien *
underlieunderlay underlain / underlien *
green-lightgreen-lighted / green-lit green-lighted / green-lit
relightrelighted / relit relighted / relit
unmakeunmadeunmade
meltmelted / molt *melted / molten
mixmixed / mixt *mixed / mixt *
mustxxxxxx
overpayoverpaid / overpayed * overpaid / overpayed *
prepayprepaid / prepayed * prepaid / prepayed *
queath ** / quethe **queathed / quethed / quoth / quod queathed / quethed / quoth / quethen
reachreached / raught * / rought / retcht * reached / raught * / rought / retcht *
misreadmisread misread / misreaden *
rereadreread reread / rereaden *
sight-readsight-read sight-read / sight-readen *
reave **reaved/reftreaved/reft
outrideoutrode / outrid * outridden / outrid *
overrideoverrode / overrid * overridden / overrid *
upriseuproseuprisen
riverived / roverived / riven
outrunoutranoutrun
overrunoverranoverrun
seetheseethed / sod * seethed / sodden *
outselloutsoldoutsold
resellresoldresold
undersellundersoldundersold
resendresentresent
insetinsetinset / insetten
resetreset reset / resetten *
misshapemisshaped / misshope * misshaped / misshapen *
outshineoutshone / outshined outshone / outshined
shitshit / shitted / shat shit / shitted / shat / shitten *
overshootovershot overshot / overshotten *
undershootundershot undershot / undershotten *
foreshowforeshowed / foreshew * foreshown / foreshowed / foreshewed *
backslidebackslid backslid / backslidden *
slipslipped / slipt *slipped / slipt *
smitesmote / smit * smitten / smitted
bespeakbespoke / bespake * bespoken / bespoke *
overspendoverspentoverspent
overspreadoverspreadoverspread
staystayed / staid *stayed / staid *
bestrewbestrewed bestrewn / bestrewed
bestridebestrode / bestrided * bestridden / bestrode * / bestrid * / bestridded *
hamstringhamstrung / hamstringed * hamstrung / hamstringed *
forswearforsworeforsworn
retreadretrod / retread * / retreaded * / retrodden * retrodden / retrod / retread * / retreaded *
waxwaxed / wex * waxed / waxen *
wendwended / went *wended / went *
workworked / wrought * worked / wrought *
wreakwreaked / wrought * / wrack * / wroke * wreaked / wrought * / wreaken * / wroken *
ache / ake *ached / oke *ached / aken *
bakebaked / book *baked / baken *
bewarexxxxxx
blendblended / blent * blended / blent *
climbclimbed / clomb * climbed / clumb *
combcombedcombed / kempt
daredared / durst *dared
dingdinged / dang *dinged / dung *
dragdragged / drug * dragged / drug *
dressdressed / drest * dressed / drest *
earnearned / earnt *earned / earnt *